How does an automatic transfer switch（ATS） work
An automatic transfer switch (ATS) is a self-acting, intelligent power switching device governed by the dedicated control logic. The principal purpose of an ATS is to make sure the continual delivery of electric power from one among two power sources to a connected load circuit (electrical equipment – lights, motors, computers, etc.).
The control logic or automatic controller is usually microprocessor-based and constantly monitors the electrical parameters (voltage, frequency) of primary and alternate power sources. Upon failure of the connected power source, the ATS will automatically transfer (switch) the load circuit to the other power source (if it’s available). As a general rule, most automatic transfer switches seek connection to the primary power source (utility) by default and can only connect with the alternate power source (engine-generator, backup utility) when required (primary source failure) or requested to do so (operator command).
Automatic transfer switch（ATS） working principle
An ATS can control when a backup generator depends on the voltage within the primary supply for a building. once they do that they need to also transfer the load to the backup generator. They work by blocking the backup generator from becoming a source of electric power until the generator itself is on for temporary power.
One example of a step-by-step process an ATS may use is:
（1）When the electric power during a building goes out, the ATS starts the backup generator. This causes the generator to ready itself to provide electric power to the house.
（2）When the generator is prepared to perform, the ATS switches the emergency power to the load.
（3）The ATS then commands the generator to shut down when the utility power is restored.
When power fails, the automatic transfer switch commands the generator to start. When the generator is prepared to provide power, the ATS switches emergency power to the load. Once utility power is restored ATS switches to utility power and commands generator shutdown.
If your house had an ATS that controlled a backup generator, the ATS would start the generator when a power outage occurred and therefore the backup generator would begin to provide power. Engineers generally design houses and transfer switches such that the generator remains become independent from the system that distributes power throughout the building. This protects the generator from overloading. Another protective measure that engineers use is that they need “cool down” times to forestall the generator from overheating.
ATS designs sometimes allow for load shedding or changing the priority of other circuits. this enables the electricity and power to circulate in ways in which are more optimal or useful for the needs of the building. These options can come in handy to forestall generators, motor controller circuit boards, and other components from overheating or overloading with electricity.
Soft loading could be a method that lets the load transfer from the utility to the synchronized generators more easily, which may also minimize voltage loss during these transfers.
Automatic transfer switch（ATS）
Low-voltage automatic transfer switch assemblies provide a reliable means of transferring essential load connections between primary and alternate sources of electric power. Data centers, hospitals, factories, and a good range of other facility types that need continuous or near-continuous uptime typically utilize an emergency (alternate) power source like a generator or a backup utility feed when their normal (primary) power source becomes unavailable.
Automatic transfer switch（ATS） for portable generator
Let’s consider why it’s a decent idea when ATS connecting a portable generator to appliances in your home.
（1）It is required by the National Electric Code.
When using a portable generator to power appliances in your home, the National Electric Code (NEC 700.5 and 701.5) requires you have a properly installed transfer switch.
This is especially important if you propose to sell your home in the future, as improper installation could be a code violation.
（2）It is the easiest method to power your home during an influence outage.
Since most of your important electrical appliances, like air-con units, furnaces, and water heaters, are hard-wired, they can’t be connected to a generator by a cord.
Also, having to seek out, untangle, and run extension cords during a blackout should be the last item on your mind.
A transfer switch allows for the power to instantly switch over to the portable generator during a power outage for a fast, easy, and reliable alternative power source.
（3）It is the safest way to connect a portable generator to your home.
Using extension cords can cause back feed from the power traveling back down the utility line.
This increases the danger of fire or electrocution which could end in serious injury or death.
Generator automatic transfer switch（ATS） installation
Power stations use enclosed circuit breakers similar to houses do for his or her needs. Research or equipment that places confidence in continuous power use Automatic Transfer Switches in additional complicated arrangements to satisfy their unique needs. The generator automatic switch installation process must use these arrangements to meet the individual needs of households and buildings.
Electrical engineers can create these designs for the facilities themselves and make control rooms for his or her different purposes like in hospitals or data centers. These could even be utilized in emergency lights that point individuals to exits when necessary, hazardous ventilation to get rid of toxic chemicals from rooms, and even alarms when monitoring facilities for fires.
The way these automatic switch designs work can involve alarms that signal powerlessness. This commands the automatic transfer switches to start up the backup generators, and, after detecting that they’ve started, the setups distribute power across the building when designing the generator automatic transfer switch installation.
Automatic transfer switch（ATS） for generator
The completely automatic transfer switch monitors incoming voltage from the utility line, round the clock.
When utility power is interrupted, the automatic transfer switch immediately senses the matter and signals the generator to start.
Once the generator is running at the proper speed, the automatic transfer switch safely shuts off the utility line and simultaneously opens the generator power line from the generator.
Within seconds, your generator system begins supplying electricity to the critical emergency circuits of your home or business. The transfer switch continues to watch the utility line conditions.
When the automatic transfer switch senses the utility line voltage has returned at a steady-state, it re-transfers the electrical load back to the utility line and resumes monitoring for subsequent utility loss. The generator will still run for an engine cool-down period of several minutes while the whole system stands ready for the subsequent power outage.
Interlock vs automatic transfer switch
These two devices work the same. However, their operability is different. Their applications are also various. With an interlock being used in residential applications and places with less frequent power outages, an automatic switch is mainly commercial and in those vast apartments. You need an automatic switch if you prefer having a fully automated system requiring no supervision. It’s also ideal for commercial or industrial applications needing continuous power. You need one of these devices in your home if you have a backup power generator. It’s also a requirement for any commercial building to have backup power with a transfer switch.